Hi Elena,

Great article succinctly describing moments humans have been forced to push past paradigmatic barriers in math. I would add a hidden moment, “Wait, are you saying that ‘nothing’ is a number we’ve been ignoring all this while?”, which falls outside the Western Canon, but I honestly don’t know which of the 10 I would replace, perhaps Zeno, since I can’t quite figure out whether it is convergence of series, infinitesimals and hence math or whether it is about the physical world.

Since you are a student of AI, perhaps you can explain whether #10, the no free lunch theorem, is the reason that machine learning ubiquitously uses the first order and mathematically ill defined gradient descent instead of the 300 year old Newton’s method for algorithmic optimization problems.

Thanks.